Beyond the Bounds: A History of UPMC

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Download online brochure PDF. Founded in as a small trolley park near Pittsburgh then known as Pittsburg , the Monongahela Street Railway Company created Kennywood as a diversion for mill workers and their families. No gambling — Casino was commonly used for eateries and gathering places in that era! Rowboats on the Lagoon, athletic competition, pony rides and finding a date in the Dance Hall ranked among the most popular diversions — a far cry from modern theme and amusement parks.

At the turn of the century, Kennywood was engaged in a fierce battle for survival with about a dozen other trolley parks and amusement resorts in Western Pennsylvania.

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McSwigan and F. Henninger, whose families would run Kennywood for the next century. In these early days, Kennywood added and removed several roller coasters, and in , opened The Old Mill pictured. All three have been named Landmark rides by the American Coaster Enthusiasts.

Thanks to the postwar Baby Boom, school picnics grew by leaps and bounds in the s. The park added many new rides, including the Hurricane, Looper, Rotor the first ride imported from Europe , the Wild Mouse and the Octopus. Later that summer, the Ghost Ship, a dark ride operating out of the former Dance Hall, burned to the ground.

Despite firefighters battling the blaze that destroyed or damaged several other rides and buildings, the park continued operations! Kennywood is one of only two amusement parks to be honored with the highest-level historic designation offered in the United States. As Kennywood moves through the 21st century, it continues to keep a balance of change and preservation of tradition which has always been important to its success.

It was located where the Sky Rocket sits today. Designer: John A. Its most unusual feature was that its track passed through a building several times. Francis and Mercy hospitals in The University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine was not the only medical research institution in the city in these years.

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The William H. Singer Memorial Research Laboratory was founded at Allegheny General Hospital in as a research laboratory dedicated to the study of medical and surgical problems. Its staff included Oscar M. Western Pennsylvania Hospital also attracted talented immunologists beginning in the s: Jacques J. Bronfenbrenner AAI '20, president —46 was director of research and diagnostic laboratories at Western Penn from to , and Arthur P. Mellon AAI '22 were researchers in the laboratories from the s until the s.

The stature of the medical research in Pittsburgh steadily increased from the s through the mids, but a series of events—the First World War, the Great Depression, and the Second World War—delayed more rapid progress until the end of the s. McEllroy encouraged the university chancellor to use a portion of the new endowment to fund a university-wide interdisciplinary research program known as the Division of Research in the Natural Sciences.

The American Association of Immunologists - The Emergence of Immunology in Pittsburgh

Mellon Education and Charitable Trust. He found an ally in the dean of the new public health program, former U. Surgeon General Thomas Parran, Jr. With financial backing and the new Division of Research serving as an indicator of the direction in which Pitt was heading, McEllroy began recruiting researchers from around the country. Convincing established scientists to tie their fates to the nascent program proved difficult because the appointments lacked status.

Younger scientists, however, could be attracted by the promise of independence and a unique opportunity to expedite their advancement through the academic ranks. One researcher who was looking for just such an opportunity was Jonas Salk. Jonas Salk and Julius Youngner, c. His search for a director of the new laboratory led him to an assistant professor of epidemiology at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, Jonas E.

AAI '30, president —50 , who was then experimenting with using ultraviolet light to produce killed-virus vaccines. After five years under Francis, Salk grew restless, desiring a promotion and more independence.

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He and Francis had a cordial relationship, but Francis could offer only an assistant professorship. When McEllroy promised to make Salk an associate professor and head of the Virus Research Laboratory at Pitt in , he immediately accepted the offer.

The History of Life Changing Medicine at UPMC

Salk soon realized that it fell upon him to be an impetus for change. He continued his investigations into influenza virus but increasingly turned to poliomyelitis virus, at least in part because he knew this research would attract funding. When NFIP approached him in late about doing the tedious technical work of typing poliovirus, Salk readily agreed to do what senior researchers had shunned. In return, he received large research grants, beginning in , to help him build his laboratory. By , his laboratory and offices had expanded to two floors in Municipal Hospital, he had been promoted to full professor, and he was hiring his own research faculty.

One of the scientists whom he brought into his laboratory was Julius S. Youngner AAI '50 from the University of Michigan, who, as a senior assistant research scientist at the National Cancer Institute, had specialized in cell culture techniques. Youngner would remain an active member of the Pitt faculty for the next 50 years. The lab shifted its efforts to producing a vaccine.

Based on the success that his mentor Francis had had with a killed-virus flu vaccine, Salk chose to pursue a killed-poliovirus vaccine over the attenuated-virus vaccine that the majority of other scientists, including his rivals Albert B. Even within the small community of researchers at Pitt, Salk had competition. Unlike Salk, who had no experience with polio research when he was hired to head the Virus Research Laboratory, Hammon had already established himself in the field when Parran convinced him to leave his position as dean of the School of Public Health at the University of California, Berkeley, for Pittsburgh.

Wary of both killed-virus and attenuated-virus vaccines, Hammon preferred passive immunization through gamma-globulin injections containing polio-resistant antibodies. He conceded that passive immunization would not prevent infection, but he argued that it could prevent the worst symptom of infection—paralysis. NFIP-funded, double-blind trials involving more than 50, children in and yielded compelling evidence that passive immunization was a major step in the war against polio. Unfortunately, as Hammon himself pointed out, the immunity produced was only temporary, and the gamma- globulin was in short supply. The national field trial, which involved more than 1. As the head of the search committee for a chair of the Department of Pathology in the medical school in , Salk selected a scientist who shared several key characteristics with him: Frank J.

Dixon was young, ambitious, and not yet well-known. Frank J. Paul, Minnesota, and had attended the University of Minnesota, where he earned his M. Marine Corps and serving in the Pacific Theater. Upon his return to the United States in , Dixon became a research assistant in the Department of Pathology at Harvard. He moved to St.

Louis, Missouri, in , where he was an instructor in the Department of Pathology at Washington University for two years before being promoted to assistant professor in I happen to be one of them. Steel as the dominant economic and physical entity in the region. It is all action, all the time.

However, Lyons keeps the pages turning at a clip that allows no time to dwell on the implausibility of the plot. Even readers who ordinarily eschew this type of fiction will find themselves suddenly at the end, slightly dazed and guiltily pleased. Diagnosis: Diversion. When his true worth was finally formally acknowledged in Cooperstown in , local fans experienced euphoria — immediately followed by a sense of loss. And so, Pittsburghers are resistant to change. The author himself suffers from this affliction, expressing concern about the wrong kind of change, which might result in a decline in the quality of life he and his family enjoy.

He wants the city to move forward, but retain its friendliness and quaint insularity. Sandra is the literary editor of Pittsburgh Quarterly.